Plantar Fasciitis is a very common condition caused by over-pronation. As the feet flatten, the Plantar Fascia (fibrous band of ligaments under the foot) is being overly stretched, leading to inflammation in the heel, where the fascia attach to the heel bone. Plantar Fasciitis causes chronic heel pain and sometimes a heel spur develops (bony growth at the heel bone). There is no real cure as such for over-pronation, however a lot can be done to prevent it. The most effective way to minimise over-pronation and its effects on the body is by wearing orthotics inside the shoes.
In addition to wearing the right shoes for flat feet, you may be able to alleviate your pain by stretching, if you have a shortened Achilles tendon. Your doctor can recommend exercises to stretch your Achilles tendon. If you are overweight, losing weight may help your pain. If your pain becomes too severe, you may have stay off your feet and take over-the-counter pain relievers. Another problem with Pes Planus is the poor fitting of shoes. Standard insoles in shoes will irritate the feet and may cause increased callus formation, increased fatigue to the feet and may lead to decreased activity. Orthotics again could assist with this difficulty.
Orthotic management of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction requires careful consideration of progression of deformity and tolerable corrective forces. Orthoses must be fabricated with adequate relief of all medial bony prominences. Given the progressive and biomechanical nature of this pathology, a radiographical study comparing effectiveness of the above orthoses and any other orthoses deemed appropriate is necessary to develop definitive orthotic plans. The child’s foot is not simply a small-scale model of an adult foot. It’s shape is not conclusively established until growth stops at the end of the second decade of life. Podiatrists identify and treat children’s foot issues by mindful examination of the foot, and lower limb, where essential.
Hip replacement surgery is designed to reconstruct a damaged hip joint with prosthetic implant materials that restore normal hip joint function and anatomy. The results of hip replacement surgery are very predictable (and usually excellent), and the operation and the prosthetic implant materials used have improved considerably since the operation became routine in the early 1960s. What follows is a brief guide outlining the degrees and types of hip joint dysfunction that normally warrant surgical hip replacement. Bone lesions are abnormalities in bone tissue that may disrupt normal body processes or create structural deficiencies. These sorts of abnormalities have a broad range of potential underlying causes.
Midfoot fusions. Midfoot fusions are probably the most commonly performed procedures for flexible flatfoot reconstructions, and are indicated when the arch is collapsed. They may be performed in isolation as a stand-alone procedure, but are often combined with rearfoot procedures and tendon transfers to balance the foot. (Figures 4-5) Medial column procedures are the Lapidus arthrodesis (or Lapidus bunionectomy), and/or navicular cuneiform arthrodesis. 52-56 When instability (hypermobility) is the cause of the collapse, fusions are directed at restoring the stability of the arch. These medial column joints are non-essential joints of the foot, so fusion of these joints does not sacrifice overall foot function. 57
Flat feet are classified as flexible or rigid. A flexible flat foot (or pronated foot) has full range of motion in the midtarsal joints. The arch of the foot can be developed by dynamic input through the tibialis posterior. A rigid flat foot has a fixed deformity, and the flattening of the longitudinal arch is unchanged by dynamic extrinsic input to the foot. The flexibile flat foot is the most common and is usually asymptomatic in the milder forms. Moderate to severe deformities may be symptomatic. The rigid flat foot is much more difficult problem and may prohibit such activities as long-distance running.
Wide sole- many shoes, especially athletic shoes and some flats and sandals, will have an hour glass shape to them in which the sole will narrow along the sides at the middle of the foot. No human generally has a foot this shape, especially those with flat feet, and support along the side of the foot will be lost if a shoe with this shape is worn. Look for a shoe that has a wider sole by looking at the bottom of the shoe. If it narrows in the middle, then it may not be suitable for someone with flat feet.
Flat feet leaves a person susceptible to injuries. More work for the feet means more wear-and-tear for the rest of the body. It throws off your balance, putting extra strain on the area where the arch normally would be, the toes, ankles, knees, and low back. Fatigue in the feet and back are most commonly reported in people who have flat feet, as well as sprained or broken ankles and knee injuries. a sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of a muscle or a group of muscles, attended by pain and interference with function, producing involuntary movement and distortion.